LHAMOUR spreads the love
2020 оны 05 сарын 06
OUR STORY
2020 оны 05 сарын 05
If you are a true leader, then you deserve to sit at the lea…
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LOCOMOTIVE
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TRAILBREAKER
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VOLUNTER OF REVSOMOL DISPATCH
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BEING ONE FAMILY MEANS HAVING AN UNANIMITY
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BRIGHTLY GLOWING PEAK
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INSEPARABLE FROM THE ROAD LIFE
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"ALUNGOO-2018" THE WINNERS OF THE CUP
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LONG YEARS OF PATIENCE, STRUGGLE AND DESIRE
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WE WANT TO GROW FUTURE CITIZENS OF THE WORLD
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Women cannot go beyond the household zone and become economi…
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The Federation of Cuban Women
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The Secret History of the Mongol Queens
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The Festivals of Mongolia
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MONGOLIA
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A GLITTERING BRIGHT STAR IN THE NIGHT SKY
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Mongolian Women’s Federation
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The Federation of Cuban Women

From the start of the Cuban Revolution, the Cuban leadership has made concerted efforts to advance the status of women and increase their social and political participation, particularly through increased access to, educational opportunities and employment. As explicitly stated in Article 44 of the Cuban Constitution, drafted in 1976, “The state guarantees women the same opportunities and possibilities as men in order to achieve women’s full participation in the development of the country.” 

Organization and Objectives

In 1960, Fidel Castro and Vilma Espin—a chemical engineer, feminist, and leader of the revolutionary movement in the eastern provinces—founded The Federation of Cuban Women (FMC, for its acronym in Spanish) to advance women’s rights, gender equalization, and reproductive health rights. Its main goals were to incorporate women into the work force and to promote their participation in the process of social and economic change.

The organization has a pyramidal structure with local, municipal, provincial, and national levels of representation and leadership. Its National Directorate is composed of a National Committee and a Secretariat, responsible for enforcing the agreements adopted at each level every five years at the meeting of the Congress, the highest governing body of the Federation. The National Committee brings together women from all social backgrounds, including women with decision-making positions in key ministries and members of the Communist Party of Cuba, trade unions, and other social organizations.

The President of the FMC is a member of the Council of State and directs the Commission for Attention to Women, Children, and Youth of the National Assembly of People’s Power, which is tasked with supporting the rights of these groups within the actions of Cuba’s legislative parliament.

Achievements

The FMC has worked toward various advancements for women, including the adoption of Cuba’s Family Code and the feminization of higher education (the increasingly high ratio of women to men in universities and professional fields). The Family Code, adopted by Cuba in 1975, covers marriage, divorce, marital property relationships, recognition of children, obligations for children’s care and education, adoption, and tutelage. It states that marriage is constituted on the basis of equal rights and duties of both partners. The significance of the Family Code is not that it creates a legally enforceable duty to share housework; rather, it codifies a societal norm and has become a tool for education and change.

The Federation has also been credited with reviving sociological research in Cuba; it has supported new research on women’s status, and has also worked to incorporate more women researchers (both Cuban and foreign) into social research programs. In 1991, a group of Cuban academics and the Federation of Cuban Women worked together to create the Women’s Studies Program at the University of Havana, and also launched women and family programs in several other Cuban universities and a Center for Research on Women within the FMC. The Federation also created Orientation Houses for Women and Families at municipal levels, which assist vulnerable women and attend to issues such as adolescent pregnancy, alcoholism and violence, and childcare centers for children of working women.

The 2008 report Cuban Women in Figures showed that women accounted for 65% of the total university graduates, a phenomenon which Cuban scholars call “the feminization of education and the professions.” Additionally, 45.7% of the total graduates of professional technical schools, and 53.4% of the total teaching staff at institutes of higher education are women.

Contemporary FMC

Today, the FMC is recognized as both an official mechanism for the incorporation of women’s issues into national politics and a non-governmental organization (NGO), because while its membership includes the vast majority of Cuban women (85.2% of all eligible women over 14), it is not government financed.

The FMC leaders, as policy insiders, negotiate with governmental actors and state institutions for concessions, acknowledgments, and adaptations of existing law. Although some have criticized the FMC for, for instance, “having a very limited range of discursive possibilities and efficacy,” other scholars assert that “to dismiss the FMC as a passive appendage of the government is to fail to understand the complexity and strength of women’s agency and political participation.”

The organization coordinates the work of 81,260 volunteer social workers and 78,624 health brigade members who support mass vaccination campaigns and prevention against dengue fever, influenza AH1-N1 and HIV/AIDS at a neighborhood level. FMC also continues to manage the Houses of Orientation for Women and the Family.

The historic power of the FMC has been its effectiveness in mobilizing women and creating solidarity, and it has achieved significant change in Cuban society, even though various social and cultural manifestations misogyny, machismo, and domestic violence are still present on the island.

Cuban Women in Figures

Cuba was the first country to sign and the second to ratify the Convention for the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

In 1997 the Council of State of the Republic of Cuba adopted a National Plan of Action to follow up on the IV World UN Conference on Women. Two National Seminars have been held and a Third one is forthcoming for its appraisal.

The national mechanism for the advancement of women is the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), which brings together more than 4 million women. The FMC is an NGO in Special Consultative Status with ECOSOC.

The Maternity and paternity Law was reviewed and its leave was extended until the baby is one year old. It gives the mother, father and grandparents the possibility of sharing the care of the child.

Women are guaranteed the exercise of their sexual and reproductive rights, including free and responsible choice. Abortion in Cuba is a free health service. Women and men enjoy the necessary services for family planning.

Cuban women enjoy the right to vote since 1934.

In relation to Women in parliamentary position, Cuba occupies the second place in the world. (53,22%)

POPULATION

Global fertility rate: 1, 63(children per women) (2016)

Gross reproduction rate: 0.78 daughters x woman (2016)  Marriage rate: 5, 7 (marriages per 1000 inhabitants)

Houses headed by women: 40, 6%

Divorce rate 2.9% (marriages per 1000 inhabitants)

EMPLOYMENT

Women in the labor force (civil-state sector): 49% (2016)

Women leaders in that sector (1995) was 27.18% and (2016) 48.6%

 Unemployment rate in (1995): 13 and in (2015), 2,6%.         

Women represent the:

67,2% of all professional and technicians in the   country. (2013)

81,9% of the labor force in the Educational sector

78,5% of the labor force in the health  sector

60,4% of General Doctors in the country

64.2% fulfilling internationalist missions

53% of all researchers in Science and Technology

33% of self-employed workers.(2016)

HEALTH

Infant mortality rate: 4 x 1000 live births (2017)

Coverage by the Family Doctor and Nurses: 99,1%

Attention to pregnant women:  99,9% of the births take place at medical institutions.

Coverage of vaccination programs: 99,5% of children are protected against 13 illnesses.

Maternal mortality rate 21,4% x c /100 000 live births (Direct 24,8 indirect 16,8)(2016)

Life expectancy:

•     General......... 78,45

•     Women.......... 80,4

•     Men......... …….76,50

Prevalence of HIV/AIDS 0,2% of the total population

Cuba eliminated mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and Syphilis.

EDUCATION

University women’s enrolment: 65 %

Women are:

• 60,5% of all University graduates (2017)

• 41,8% of all technical science graduates

• 53.7% of graduates in natural sciences and mathematics

• 69.7% of graduates in Economics.

• 66.9% of graduates in Medical Sciences

• 66% of the teaching staff of Higher Education

WOMEN AND POLITICS

Women in Parliament 48,86 %

Of the 3 maximum positions in Parliament 2 are women

Presidents of Provincial Governments: 9 (60%)

• Presidents of municipal governments 39.2% (66)

Women in leading positions: 46%

Women Ministries: 9 (37,5%)

Women Vice Ministries: 42 (35,6%)

14 Women members of the Council of the State (41,9%)

Two women as Vice President of the Council of the State

Women are:

•     78% of all attorneys of the country

•     71,4% of Provincial Presidents of the Courts

•     77,5% of the professional judges of the country

•     66% of the judges in the Supreme Court.

48 of 199 scientific research centers that exist in the country are headed

by women that represent: 24%.

 



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