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2019 оны 09 сарын 05
A GLITTERING BRIGHT STAR IN THE NIGHT SKY
On the threshold of the 95th anniversary of the Women’s Organization, the magazine “Mongolian Women” welcomes dear readers and presents you the story of a woman who fought with her knowledge, diligence, beauty of her young years, bold words and deed for the rights of women, for self-development of a modern, educated, equal, humane woman. We present the story of this woman, quoting from the notes of our wise men.
The owner of this historical destiny is the wife of the founder of modern literature, great writer Natsagdorj D., the First Leader of the Women’s Movement of Mongolia Pagmadulam Damdin.
Some sources indicated: “Pagmadulam was born in the family of the artisan Damdin, in the city of Amgalanbaatar /at that time “Naimaa”/. Little is known about her life”. Pagmadulam was the adopted child of the artisan Damdin, and Damdin was a nobleman. And the woman who raised Pagmadulam was not Damdin’s wife, was his maid.
In the notes about the aristcrats of the 1920s and 1930s it was mentioned: “Pagmadulam has a classic family education. She is fluent in Mongolian writing, also fluent in Manchu, Chinese, Russian, German, Mongolian. She is a beauty and an educated person. She sings well, plays musical instruments, and she is kind-hearted and sociable”.
She was the first Head of the Mongolian Women’s Organization. And she was elected as the first female member of the Parliament and participated in the approval of the first constitution of Mongolia.
Pagmadulam was the only female member of the first permanent Parliament which established in 1924. In this Parliament from the first seven partisans of People’s Revolution was elected only Choibalsan Kh.
In the newspaper “Urginskaya Gazeta” was noted “Smart girl Pagmadulam, who recently joined the party at the age of 19, at the congress dedicated to the third year anniversary of the Mongolian People’s Party, said that the most important achievement of the party was that it gave opportunity for empowering women”.
In 1920, at the age of 14, Pagmadulam forcibly married the son of Erdene Chin van Palam, but after a year she returned to her father’s house. After that, she entered the youth organization of the overthrow of Boshgo and met the writer Natsagdorj D. Therefore, the above phrase “gave opportunity for empowering women” is the word of a woman who personally experienced a change in the position of Mongolian women.
There is an assumption that Natsagdorj D. and Pagmadulam D. were married in 1922. Because noted that “in the autumn of 1925, the newlyweds went to study in Leningrad. Since becoming Natsagdorj’s wife Pagmadulam has been actively involved in political life. On the basis of the decision of the Party Central Committee of March 8, 1924, on March 19 of the same year, the school teacher Hasnavch, Badamrinchin, Pagmadulam gathered and decided to create the “Women’s Department” under the Party Central Committee. And Pagmadulam was chosen as the head of this department, which was called “Educate Women”.
Based on this information, we can say that Pagmadulam Damdin is one of the founders of the Mongolian women’s organization, as well as the first leader of this organization. She left a bright mark on the formation of the women’s movement ... According to other sources, she is the first teacher of the primary school in Amgalan, the first chairman of the national club. This story should never be forgotten. If you forget the one who covered the path in dark times, then who will you become?” wrote State Prize Laureate, Honored Artist of Mongolia Nyamaa D. in his book “Mother’s 108 Stupas”.
There are notes that in 1923, Natsagdorj D. and Pagmadulam D. had a daughter, Tserendulam. In 1925, they left their daughter to Damdin, Pagmadulam’s father. Natsagdorj through the Military Ministry entered the Military Political Academy of Tolmachyov in Leningrad, and Pagmadulam entered the Institute of Eastern Studies in the city of Leningrad.
When they returned for the summer holidays, they found out that the Ministry of Public Education is sending students to study in Japan. They applied. But their application was rejected (MPP archive). Those who were not sent to Japan, it was decided to send to Western European countries (Minister of Education of the People Erdenebathaan personally conducted these students to Germany and France). Natsagdorj and Pagmadulam completed a language course in Berlin, then Natsagdorj entered the University of Leipzig (in German: Universität Leipzig) and worked as an assistant to the well-known Mongolian of the Faculty of Oriental Studies E. Heinish (E. Hаeinisch). Some researchers of Buddhism, Professor F.Veller (F.Weller) wrote: “Natsag and Dulam rented a two-room apartment in the area filed from the city center”.
Also, the poet Nyamaa Dolgor wrote in his memoirs: “A photo of Pagmadulam, who watched the celebration of the first May in capitalist society with her own eyes, was printed on postcards of Germany and used for advertising. But none of us even heard about it. Sheet from the letter with the inscription “One of the large squares of the city of Leipzig. The Vershtein Department Store, which opened in 1886” was personally handed over to me by the Senior Officer of the Ministry of Finance, the statesman Baasanzhav Dorzh on February 7, 2012. He carefully kept it for many years, and also said that he expresses deep respect for that cultural personality”. Photo of Pagmadulam, published in a large print run in the west, which has been stored for 80 years since the 1930s, tells a story in itself.
Thus, studying in foreign countries with her husband, developing together with world development in 1929, returned to her homeland, when Mongolia convened her students back to their homeland. After returning from Germany at the congress of the Mongolian Revolutionary Youth Union, she expressed that many innocent people were persecuted, dismissed from work, and discriminated against. There are notes that she was ousted from the party for these words.
After that, they began to discriminate her even more, her rights to choose were annuled, even imprisoned, and this was the beginning of exclusion from society.
There are notes that the twice State Prize laureate, Honored artist, writer Namdag Donrov writing the novel “Political upheavals time” through the main role of Oyundar he wanted to express Pagmadulam.
Senior literary expert Jamsranjav wrote that “The main role of the novel Namdag Donrov “Political upheavals time” Oyundar is an educated, cultural, talented, beautiful woman. When Namdag spoke about this role, he recalled Pagmadulam. Therefore the characters of woman with aristocrat roots, who is fluent in Mongolian writing, in Manchu, Chinese, Russian, German, Mongolian found reflection in role of Oyundar the novel of Namdag.
And in the memoirs of the writer Dashdoor S., “he rewrote the scene, about how Oyundar plays the musical instrument shans, eight times. He was reading again and aigain, and asking which option is better” (“Literature”, 1996, No. 23). This shows how the writer Namdag tried to express better the role of Oyundar.
In the summer of 1936, Natsagdorj wrote to his niece, Darsuren, and despair that: “If we meet with Pagma, the state will collapse. And if I meet with my daughter, the Mongolian-Russian friendship will collapse. Therefore, we cannot see each other” /Natsagdorj and Darsuren were children of sisters/. In some notes it is written that when Natsagdorj and Pagmadulam died, their daughter Tserendulam was 14-15 years old. A few years later nurse Aajiy also died. Due to discrimination, her own daughter could not bear the father’s surname, could not see her parents. Tserendulam wore the name of Damdin’s grandfather. Throughout her life she was under the scorn of the investigators.
This noble man who left the bright line in a history of the Mongolian women’s organization in 1924 participated and dedicated to the third year anniversary of the Mongolian People’s Party: “After the formation of the national government, the right to lead the society was granted, and many opportunities were offered to women, such as education and political participation. For which many women are happy to state. During the previous government, women were not even considered a man, they were treated worse than animals. Girls were forcibly married, the woman was like a servant. And now women have the opportunity to receive education on a par with European women. We women will learn, improve our education and contribute to the development of society. I wish all women of Mongolia were educated and free”. Also Pagmadulam built People’s Children Hall and initiated to ogranize “Red Yurt” for women.
When she was working as a head of Women’s Department she put forward many initiatives, which was reflected in the policies of the Central Committee of the Party and was implemented by stages.
Also Women’s Department invited the Prime Minister Tserendorj for the first Conference of Women of Ulaanbaatar city” and presented a speech. After that the Government approve a decree №40 which prohibited to sell women and forcefully marry them. And also made an amendment to article 3 of the Family Law, that persons over the age of 18 may enter into marriage. In order to protect the freedom of women, it was decided to hire women in the judiciary and enforcement agencies. It was decided to organize the “Red Yurt”, “Red Corner”, to protect women, which is recorded in the documents.
About the first leader of the Mongolian women’s organization, the woman who was a representative of the aristocracy of that time, her fate, the last years of her life, the relationship between mother and child, love, the sad end there are many documents and assumptions. In her young years, she passionately fought for the equality of women, for freedom of choice, for freedom of speech, for the right to get an education, for the right to marry on the basis of love. On behalf of thousands of free women of Mongolia, we bow low to this great woman, Pagmadulam Damdin, who was a glittering bright star in the night sky.